Oliver Tambo

Background

By 1600 all of what is now South Africa has been settled by indigenous Africans. European intrusion into the region begins in 1652 when the Dutch establish a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope on the southwestern tip of Africa. The British seizure of the settlement in 1795 leads to conflict with the established European farmers (the Boer). The conflict eventually boils over into the Boer War of 1899-1902. The British win but ultimately opt to give South Africa independence.

The Union of South Africa is formed on 31 May 1910. Black South Africans have limited voting rights and are subjected to growing discrimination. In 1948 the National Party wins the all-white general election on a campaign promise to introduce a system of "apartheid" to totally separate the races. Opposition to the apartheid system by the black majority is ruthlessly suppressed. The National Party will remain in power until 1994. More background.

Mini biography

Born on 27 October 1917 in the rural town of Mbizana in eastern Mpondoland, South Africa.

1940 - After completing his high school education he obtains a Bachelor of Science degree from the University College of Fort Hare. He stays on at the university to study for a diploma in higher education but is expelled with Nelson Mandela for participating in a student strike.

1942 - He returns to his old school in Johannesburg to teach science and mathematics. He meets Walter Sisulu and becomes involved in the African National Congress (ANC).

1944 - Together with Mandela and Sisulu he founds the ANC Youth League (ANCYL) and is appointed as its first national secretary. He is elected president of the Transvaal ANCYL in 1948 and national vice president in 1949.

1946 - Tambo is elected onto the Transvaal executive of the ANC.

1948 - The National Party is voted into power by the white electorate. The party has campaigned on the promise to introduce a system of "apartheid" to totally separate the races. Discrimination against blacks, "coloureds" and Asians will be codified and extended.

All South Africans are legally assigned to one racial group - white, African, coloured or Asian. All races have separate living areas and separate amenities (such as toilets, parks and beaches). Signs enforcing the separation are erected throughout the country. Only white South Africans are allowed full political rights.

Black Africans have no parliamentary representation outside of the supposedly independent homelands created by the state. Mixed marriages are prohibited. Black trade unions are banned. Education is provided only up to a level to which it is deemed "a native is fitted." Separate universities and colleges are established for Africans, coloureds and Indians. Jobs can be categorised as being for whites only. Travel without a pass is not permitted.

Police powers are expanded. Those charged with dissent are presumed guilty until proven innocent. The Suppression of Communism Act (1950) allows the police to "list" almost any opponent of apartheid as a supporter of the outlawed Communist Party of South Africa.

Opponents can be "banned", an order subjecting them to lengthy periods of house arrest and preventing them from holding public office, attending public meetings and visiting specified areas. The Native Administration Act (1956) allows the government to "banish" Africans to remote rural areas.

During the 1950s there are approximately 500,000 pass law arrests annually, more than 600 individuals are listed as communists, nearly 350 are banned, and more than 150 are banished.

Meanwhile, Tambo and Sisulu are elected onto the ANC national executive. Tambo enrols to study law by correspondence.

1949 - On 17 December the Youth League's 'Program of Action' to achieve full citizenship and direct parliamentary representation for all South Africans is adopted by the ANC at its annual conference. The program advocates the use of boycotts, strikes, civil disobedience and noncooperation.

1952 - In February the ANC calls on the government to repeal all unjust laws or face a 'Campaign for the Defiance of Unjust Laws'. Mass rallies and strikes staged on 6 April and 26 June attract thousands of supporters.

The government reacts by introducing harsher penalties for protests against apartheid. Campaign leaders and opposition newspapers are banned and about 8,500 people are arrested, including Mandela and Sisulu. Because of the disciplined and nonviolent nature of the campaign both receive suspended sentences.

The defiance campaign has helped build ANC membership from about 7,000 at the beginning of the year to more than 100,000 by the year's end.

Tambo and Mandela open the first black legal firm in the country.

1955 - When Sisulu is forced by the government to step down as secretary-general of the ANC, Tambo fills the post.

Meanwhile, the ANC writes a 'Freedom Charter' stating that South Africa belongs to all people living within it regardless of race, that all South Africans should be treated equally before the law, and that the country's wealth should be distributed equitably. The charter is being discussed at the 'Congress of the People' held near Soweto on the southwestern outskirts of Johannesburg on 25-26 June when police surround the meeting, announce that they suspect treason is being committed and take the names and addresses of all those present.

1956 - Tambo becomes engaged to Adelaide Tshukudu, who is also an activist in the ANC. Three weeks before the wedding Tambo, Mandela, Sisulu and 153 others are arrested for high treason and charges under the Suppression of Communism Act. While Tambo is soon acquitted the so-called 'Treason Trial' of the other defendants lasts until 1961 when they too are acquitted on all counts. The court finds that the ANC does not have a policy of violence.

Four days after being released Tambo marries Adelaide. The couple will have three children, Thembi, Dali and Tselane.

1958 - Tambo is appointed deputy president of the ANC.

1959 - A radical faction of the ANC splits from the parent body and forms the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC). The PAC advocates direct action against the apartheid regime.

Tambo is served with a five year banning order.

1960s - The regime introduces a program of forced relocation. Africans, coloureds and Asians are moved from areas designated for whites only to the "homelands" and other declared areas. By the 1980s about 3.5 million have been relocated.

1960 - In March the PAC begins a national campaign against the pass laws. Africans are asked to assemble outside police stations without their passes and challenge the police to arrest them. The confrontation turns violent on 21 March when police open fire on a peaceful protest at Sharpeville, a black township near Johannesburg. Sixty-nine black Africans are killed and 186 wounded. Most have been shot in the back.

When demonstrations continue, the government declares a state of emergency and arrests about 18,000 protesters, including the leaders of the ANC and the PAC. Both organisations are banned. The ANC goes underground.

Tambo is assigned to travel abroad to help set up the ANC's mission in exile and mobilise international opinion against the apartheid regime. He is instrumental in establishing the South African United Front, an umbrella group whose intensive lobbying campaign sees South Africa expelled from the Commonwealth in 1961. ANC missions are set up in Egypt, Ghana, Morocco and London.

By 1990 there are ANC missions in 27 countries, including all the permanent members of the UN Security Council except China.

1961 - As international protests against apartheid mount, South Africa is expelled from the British Commonwealth.

On 31 May, after gaining approval in a referendum restricted to whites, the government declares South Africa a republic. The ANC organises a national strike in protest. When the government responds by introducing new and harsher laws, and by mobilising its armed forces to break up the strike, ANC leaders conclude that the time has come for the Congress to move beyond nonviolent protest.

Mandela, Sisulu and other ANC leaders form Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation), the military wing of the ANC, in November. Under Mandela's leadership it launches a campaign of sabotage against government and economic installations. Over the next two years 200 acts of sabotage will be carried out by Umkhonto, targeting power supplies, pass offices and other government buildings.

Tambo secures military training and camp facilities for Umkhonto in numerous African countries, including Tanzania and Zambia.

1963 - Tambo is out of the country in July when police raid an ANC safe house in Rivonia, a fashionable suburb on the northern outskirts Johannesburg, and discover arms and equipment.

As a result Mandela, Sisulu and other leaders of the ANC and Umkhonto stand trial for sabotage and for plotting to overthrow the government by violence and then bring about a communist state.

The defendants face the death penalty. They plead not guilty, arguing that the government is responsible because it forced them into their actions.

The government acts to crush any further resistance to apartheid, introducing the General Law Amendment Act. The act allows police to detain suspects for 90 days without charge or access to legal advice. Suspects can then be rearrested and detained for a further 90 days.

1964 - On 11 June eight of the Rivonia accused, including Mandela and Sisulu, are convicted. All eight are sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to Robben Island Prison, a former leper colony 7 km off the coast from Cape Town, becoming a symbol for the struggle of black South Africans and a focus of world attention.

However, despite growing international criticism of the apartheid regime, foreign investment continues to pour into the country and immigration rises.

Tambo stays in exile.

1967 - Tambo is appointed acting president of the ANC. The presidency is confirmed in 1969.

1970s - Tambo travels the world, addressing the UN and other international gatherings on apartheid. He becomes the key figure in the ANC's Revolutionary Council, set up in 1969 to oversee the restructuring of the ANC and improve its capacity for covert action against the apartheid regime. During the 1980s he broadcasts regularly into South Africa on Radio Freedom, calling for a people's war against apartheid.

1973 - The United Nations (UN) declares apartheid "a crime against humanity."

1975 - The withdrawal of the Portuguese colonial administration from Angola and Mozambique sees the installation in those countries of new independent governments hostile to South Africa's apartheid regime. Umkhonto training and camp facilities are quickly set up in Angola. The ANC military wing now has a base close to South Africa.

On 23 October, and with the blessing of United States President Gerald Ford and US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, South Africa invades Angola. The South African forces come within 100 km of the Angolan capital but are forced to pull back when Cuba sends 10,000 to 12,000 troops to assist the Angolan resistance.

1976 - The Soweto uprising begins on 16 June when high school students protest against the enforced use of Afrikaans in schools. After the police respond with tear gas and gunfire, demonstrators attack and burn down government buildings.

The uprising leads to weeks of demonstrations, marches and boycotts throughout South Africa. Violent clashes with police leave more than 500 dead, several thousand arrested, and thousands more seeking refuge outside the country, many with the exiled forces of the ANC.

1977 - The UN adopts a mandatory embargo on arms sales to South Africa.

1979 - With capital leaving the country because of political instability, and with the economy beginning to slow, the government attempts to reduce industrial unrest by allowing black workers to form unions. The first chink in the apartheid system has appeared.

1980 - Opposition to South Africa on the continent is further entrenched when Robert Mugabe's antiapartheid government takes power in Zimbabwe.

1983 - The United Democratic Front (UDF), a coalition of nearly 600 organisations, is formed to persuade the government to abolish apartheid. Bishop Desmond Tutu emerges as one of the front's principal spokesmen. By 1984 the front has a membership of more than three million.

1984 - The National Party introduces a new constitution in an attempt to stem dissent. However, the constitution, which establishes three racially segregated houses of parliament, for whites, Asians, and coloureds, but excludes blacks from full citizenship, has the opposite effect and is denounced as a continuation of apartheid.

1985 - Tambo is reelected ANC president. As president he also heads the Politico-military Council and Umkhonto. The ANC determines to step up the armed struggle.

Conflict and violence escalate. In 1984 there are 174 fatalities linked to political unrest. In 1985 the number rises to 879. Capital begins to flee the country. Forty US companies pull out of South Africa in 1984. Another 50 leave in 1985. Inflation rises and standards of living drop.

The government declares states of emergency in various parts of the country; the first time the emergency laws have been used since the Sharpeville massacre of 1960. The laws allow police to arrest without warrant and to detain people indefinitely without charge and without notification to lawyers or next of kin. Censorship of the media is also extended.

1986 - In October the US Congress passes legislation implementing mandatory sanctions against South Africa. All new investments and bank loans are banned, air links between the US and South Africa are terminated and the importation of many South African products is stopped.

1987 - While the union movement becomes increasingly militant, with the number of days lost to strikes reaching 5.8 million in 1987, armed members of the ANC and PAC stage raids on South Africa from their bases in Angola, Mozambique, and Zimbabwe.

The regime responds by renewing a series of states of emergency, unleashing its police, and sending its military forces on counter-strike raids.

Media restrictions are tightened and the UDF and other activist organisations are effectively banned.

As a result opprobrium for the regime grows around the world. More foreign investors withdraw, banks call in loans, the currency collapses, economic production declines and inflation becomes chronic.

1988 - In May South African President P.W. Botha, a National Party hardliner, directs the head of his intelligence service, Niel Barnard, to meet secretly with Mandela in prison to discuss the possibility of a peace settlement. More than 60 similar meetings will follow.

1989 - The "secret" talks culminate with a face-to-face meeting between Mandela and Botha at Botha's presidential office on 5 July. Botha subsequently resigns following a stroke and is replaced by F.W. de Klerk, a moderate within the National Party.

Mandela meets with de Klerk in December. Negotiations on the terms and conditions for Mandela's release begin.

Meanwhile, Tambo suffers a stroke and undergoes extensive medical treatment.

1990 - On 2 February de Klerk announces that Mandela will be released. He also rescinds the orders banning the ANC, the PAC, the South African Communist Party (SACP) and other previously illegal organisations. Restrictions on the UDF and the media are lifted. Mandela is finally released from prison on Sunday 11 February.

In June Mandela and de Klerk met officially for the first time. In August Mandela announces the suspension of the ANC's armed struggle. In October the government repeals the law requiring the races to use separate amenities.

Tambo ends his 30-year exile when he returns to South Africa on 13 December.

1991 - By April, 933 of the country's estimated 2,500 political prisoners have been released. On 5 June the government repeals the law making it illegal for Africans to own land in urban areas and the law segregating people by race. A new law allows all races equal rights to own property anywhere in the country. The law assigning every resident of South Africa to a specific racial group is repealed on 17 June. The international community responds by lifting most of the sanctions on South Africa.

On 7 July, at the first national conference of the ANC held inside South Africa since the organisation was banned in 1960, Tambo, whose health is still suffering, hands over the presidency of the ANC to Mandela and assumes the largely honorary post of national chairperson. Sisulu is elected deputy president.

1992 - White South African's overwhelmingly vote "yes" in a referendum asking if the reform of apartheid should be continued. In September, following a request by Mandela, 400 political prisoners are released.

1993 - Tambo dies from a stroke on 24 April in Johannesburg. In a eulogy Mandela says, "Oliver lived not because he could breathe. He lived not because blood flowed through his veins. Oliver lived not because he did all the things that all of us as ordinary men and women do. Oliver lived because he had surrendered his very being to the people."

Postscript

The negotiations on the transition conclude towards the end of 1993. It is agreed that a five-year 'Government of National Unity' with a majority-rule constitution will be formed following South Africa's first truly multiracial democratic election, scheduled for April 1994. The new constitution guarantees all South Africans "equality before the law and equal protection of the law", full political rights, freedom of expression and assembly, and the right to "choose a place of residence anywhere in the national territory."

1994 - The ANC wins the country's first all-race elections.

Over four days beginning on 26 April more than 22 million South Africans, or about 91% of registered voters, go to the polls.

The ANC secures nearly 63% of the vote, missing the two-thirds majority needed to unilaterally change the constitution. The National Party gets about 20% of the vote, becoming the second largest party in the parliament. On 9 May the National Assembly unanimously elects Mandela president.

Mandela is inaugurated on 10 May at a ceremony in Pretoria, the South African capital. In his inaugural address he stresses the need for reconciliation and reaffirms his determination to create a peaceful, nonracial society.

The ministry of the new government includes blacks, whites, Afrikaners, Indians, coloureds, Muslims, Christians, communists, liberals and conservatives.

In June the government announces that a Truth and Reconciliation Commission will investigate human rights abuses and political crimes committed by both supporters and opponents of apartheid between 1960 and 10 May 1994. Guidelines for the commission's operations are set and Archbishop Desmond Tutu is appointed as its chair.

1996 - A new South African constitution that bars discrimination against the country's minorities, including whites, is signed into law by Mandela on 10 December. The new constitution contains a bill of rights and ends the Government of National Unity. The ANC takes government in its own right. The National Party becomes the opposition.

1999 - The ANC wins the general election held on 2 June, increasing its majority.

2005 - The National Party, which introduced the apartheid system after coming to government in 1948, officially disbands on 9 April. The party had received less than two percent of the vote at general elections held in 2004.

Comment

Tambo has been described as the glue that held the antiapartheid movement together. He is remembered as a patient listener with a razor-sharp intellect who employed the traditional African methods of consensus to negotiate and reach decisions. He was the modest yet relentless lobbyist who brought the plight of black South Africans under the apartheid regime to world attention.

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